Puppeteer and Playwright can be used to create PDFs from webpages. This opens up interesting automation scenarios for tasks such as archiving, generating invoices, writing manuals, books and more.
This article introduces this functionality and shows how we can customise the PDF to fit our needs.
The HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is stateless, but cookies allow it to keep context consistent over the course of a session. In other words, by having our browser automatically exchange small amounts of data, we get to have websites recognise us and remember our preferences, the contents of our shopping baskets or the fact that we had just logged in to our account.
The need for fast and responsive applications has never been greater because of the move from desktop to mobile. Still, web applications have been increasing in complexity and size, with rising load times. It is therefore clear why the topic of webpage performance is more popular today than it likely ever was.
This article aims at giving a practical introduction to the whys and hows of web performance, without getting lost in the depth or breadth of this massive topic.
With Puppeteer and Playwright, writing scripts by hand is not the only option. Since browser automation first became possible, there have always been tools trying to simplify script creation. Such ins...
Websites might expose files for users to download and then access from their local machine. Common cases are downloading tickets, receipts and itineraries.
This example runs against our test w...
When we browse the web, a series of HTTP requests and responses are exchanged between our browser and the pages we are visiting. There are scenarios in which it is useful to monitor or manipulate this...
We call the action of extracting data from web pages web scraping. Scraping is useful for a variety of use cases:
- In testing and monitoring, asserting against the state of one or more elements on a page
- In general, gathering data for a variety of different purposes
While automation tools are fundamental to modern software development, they also have the innate potential to be used for malicious purposes. This applies to Puppeteer and Playwright, too.
As a consequence, some user flows are made purposely hard to automate to defend against threat actors. Some examples:
- New user signup
- Social login through providers like Google, Facebook etc.
- "Forgot password" and similar reset scenarios
Most services allow users to manage their account settings. These oftentimes have far-reaching implications on how the user experiences the platform. Verifying that the account settings can be viewed and modified is key in making sure we are offering a smooth service.
We define test data as any data we consistently use to verify a certain property, like functionality or performance, of a system. Another popular term for the same concept is fixture. We will use these interchangeably.
Headless browsers can be leveraged for testing in a variety of ways, and different scenarios do command different approaches. That being said, there are some general pointers most should follow in order to keep their tests valuable.
Here, we define valuable as sustainably expressing meaningful, truthful information about the state of a system.
A test that does not reliably fulfill these criteria should be fixed, if possible, or simply removed.
Searching a website is an everyday action for most internet users. For most services, the speed at which their customers are able to get to the products they are looking for is directly tied to revenue. To enable that, a performant and reliable search function is needed.
Webshops and subscription-based services often offer discounts through coupon codes. Applying a valid coupon code during checkout might reduce the price of one, several, or all items in the shopping cart.
Another key website flow that needs to be closely monitored is any sort of checkout. You want to be 100% sure your users are able to pay for goods or services you might be offering, at any given time.
Signups are key transactions in most web platforms, and therefore prime targets for automation.
Oftentimes, registering an account is where we will find longer forms asking the user to answer a variety of questions. Luckily, Puppeteer and Playwright are quick enough to blaze through these in seconds.